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Homeland Security

Excerpts of Workshop Conducted by Prof. Dr. D Rao for Mumbai Police (Zonal level)

Homeland (Internal) Security in Counter Terrorism Ops In India

1) INTRODUCTION: To bring awareness about Terrorism & Terror Operations, Explosive use in Terror, Small Team QRT (Quick Response Team) function & Other Measures.

2) NATURE OF TERRORISM: Terrorism in India is part of a 3 fold strategy against India called K2. Khalistan & Kashmir. To aid these states to separate from India. Terrorism is proxy war, for which the participating country cannot be proven guilty of the act. It is also a cheap war against another country where no expensive weaponry like tanks, aircrafts, artillery is needed. All that is needed is a few terrorists with some explosives or AK-47s. A Terrorist is always interested in spreading Terror. An act of terrorism will attack targets where

a) there are plenty of crowds or
b) communally sensitive locations like Temples or Mosques or
c) try to handicap transport such as Buses or Railways or Airports, or
d) Other places where he will get sufficient publicity for the act.

Generally speaking, A terrorist is a misguided youth from J & K who under some fundamentalist religious mis guidance for JIHAD, Holy War takes the path of Terror. He

a) travels across Nepal or Saudi or Other routes to Pakistan,
b) does his 4 week Arms training in POK &
c) returns across LOC to J & K, is housed by like minded locals & is on a 2 yr contract of Rs 10,000 Rs/mo
d) executes his mission in valley against some Indian Forces Units or in villages or Public places in the J & K Valley.
e) At times he travels to Metros like Mumbai, Delhi, etc & takes refuge with some prominent people of the Metro who have links with ISI, the intelligence agency of Pakistan.
f) He may along with other terrorists plan to execute missions in the city.
g) He may also be a foreign mercenary (Ex soldier) say Afghani who works for 20,000 Rs/ mo.
h) Advanced Terrorist goes again to Afghanistan for Explosive trg & returns with 5 yr contract.

3) EXPLOSIVES: Essential components of IED are DETONATOR, SWITCH, BATTERY & CHARGE. Military Switches from Pak Army may be Pressure, Pull, Release & PENCIL TIMER (Bombay Blasts). One must learn to IDENTIFY: Detonator, Deto Cord, Fuse wire & Plastique. DONOT Mistake any of these to be routine electrical material. If in Doubt, restrain & confirm.

Explosive burns with Red-brownish gas NO2. Detonator is like a pen cap with 2 wires. Detocord is a hollow tube with powder in its interior. Fuse wire is gunpowder coated, it burns like diwali sparklers. All Military material may be in green boxes with yellow writing. Identifying explosives at grass root level of constable is the only way to prevent blasts.


a) A Terrorist may place IEDs with timer devices at strategic locations as mentioned above.
b) Or he may decide to storm a School, Theatre or Public place and create a hostage situation & make demands on the govt.
c) He may enter public place & start firing at public at random (e.g Akshardam & Bangalore)
d) He may start communal riots by masquerading to be from either community.
e) He may assassinate a VIP to make a statement
f) He may deface a monument to bring shame to city.
f) He may hijack a transport system like Rail, Bus, Plane.

5) SMALL TEAM ORGANIZATION: In order to prepare to react quickly to terror threat in their area of function, Police Station Units have to FORM & ORGANIZE Small Teams. These may be a TEAM of 12 members with 3 SQUADs of 4 MEMBERS in each squad. Each squad will have to practice movement & function with each member covering 4 directions: Front Zone, Right & Left Flanks & Rear Zone. The Officers (PSIs & PIs) must engage the constable 4 member Squad & 12 member Team together in all operations, Minor or Criminal as a practice to get comfortable with Team work & Coordination. Only then will the local Police Station QRT work effectively in CT Op situation.

6) MOBILE CHECK POST: For Terrorism to occur, Explosives, Weapons & Terrorists must be transported to the Mteros from outside. Hence Quick impromptu Checkposts (MCPs) take utmost importance. Here once again Local constables in QRT must be used. One man stopping Vehicle, Two guarding flanks, One man asking Driver to alight, all under weapon cover. Vehicle & Men must be frisked quickly with concentration for Weapons & Explosives. IDs must be demanded & checking must proceed irrespective of Class of passengers.

7) MONUMENT & VIP PROTECTION: QRTs must learn to effectively guard & protect Important Temples (like Siddhi Vinayak). Assemblies, Mantralaya, Museums, Govt Buildings & National Monuments must be carefully guarded using QRTs during holidays of National significance. Trouble must be expected by local QRT during bandobast & division of function & responsibility must be the rule of thumb.


A) Terrorism is coming in a big way
B) Terrorism will affect all of us: Our relatives, colleagues, neighbours
C) We have to expect & be ready for emergency terror event
D) One must learn to identify explosives
E) One must check for Explosives, Weapons & Suspicious characters
F) A Terrorist is a normal looking human with evil ideas. Have High index of suspicion.
G) Police Stations must form Local QRTs of 4-12 members
H) Encourage function of QRT in all routine functioning petty or minor, to practice protocols.
I) Spread awareness of Terrorism & Counter Terrorism Methods.
J) Metros have certain soft targets where one must expect tterror events & prepare QRTs.